Parents should realize that nothing is "free" in life and this attitude will help them to be more consistant with reinforcement.
One of the biggest obstacles to teaching your child is realizing that things in life are not free. Parents or Caregivers will be more likely to reinforce once they accept this basic principle of reinforcement. Reinforcers need to delivered consistently. If your child does do something good then this good behavior should definitely be rewarded. In contrast, if the child is inappropriate then he should not be rewarded. The first step is to try to reward any behavior that is positive. For example, if the child cleans his room or eats his breakfast be sure to reinforce your child. Secondly, when your child cries or tantrums try not to reinforce your child. For example, the most common behavior is for parents to pick up and hug a child when he cries. In contrast, the parent should realize that this would be giving a reinforcer for free. The child has not performed any appropriate behavior yet he is reinforced. We all work to get money for food and things that we want. We know that we will probably loose our job over time or not get commissions if we do not work. Consistent reinforcement of behavior will lead to rapid learning and appropriate behavior.
Preparing to toilet train your child? Don't forget to pick up some pull-ups for during the training. Firstly, The reason these are more effective then diapers is that they are easier for the child to pull down and up. Secondly, they are a good cue to the parent to encourage them to attempt toilet trips rather than changing the diaper. Thirdly, it is a good idea to buy pull ups that are attractive to your child such as with "hello Kitty" on them.
Also, it is a good idea to buy underwear next after the toileting accidents are only once or twice a week. The underwear might also have designs or characters you child likes so that he will be proud to wear "big boy underwear"! Finally if you have already a big supply of diapers you might use them at night until they are used up in order to save money. Night time toilet training is usually accomplished after the daytime toile training.
If an intensive toilet training session is not possible it is still effective to do in when possible but being prepared with the prepared with pull-ups will increase the spead of toilet training. If you need some asssitance the best-seller "Toilet Training in less than a day!" by Nathan Azrin is available in paperback on websites such as Amazon and others. Also, an AP will come out next year most likely with the book on it. The book is written by my Father Nathan Azrin! It breaks down toileting training into easily accomlished steps and details. REmember the advantages of toilet training are many including a required prerequisite in most schools at a certain age and the conveince for you of not having to change diapers sometimes 3 or more times a day!! The small amount of time toilet training will lead to amny more hours of freetime for the parents from changing diapers!!:)
Scheduling your childs' day (for an autistic, ADHD or child with behavior problems) some tips in for your schedule!
A schedule is very helpful in promting appropriate behavior. It is helpful to the parent to encourage consistency and to the child to know what is expected during the day in or to receive positive reinforcement. The following are some technical tips in designing your schedule for the child.
1. Always be specific about which behavior you except and define it breifly in the schedule
2. Includ time frames usually an hour time frame is good so that it is not too detailed or confusing. Two hour blocks is not quite specific enough. Also, remember that the schedule is followed by humans and therefore it may have to be adjusted or approximately followed which is sufficient to achieve appropriate behavior for your child. Do not worry if you have to move something one time. In fact if one reinforcer is moved it is just as effective since intermittent schedules are actually more powerful in acheiving appropriate behavior.
3. It is beneficial to include specific reinforcer for a specific target that will be received so that there is no confusion for the child. The caregivere or parent will find it is even more powerful a schedule if the rewards and behaviors are reminded to the child so that he does not forget and misbehave.
4. The reinforcers included must be the type that your specific child enjoys otherwise they are meaningless.
5. Pairing the reinforcer with social praise and expressive facial expression will increase the power of your reinforcement. Especially if the social praise specifically includes praise about the childs' character.
6. Remember that your child will live up to the level that you expect it is most likely. Try to expect the exact positive behaivors that you always dreamed your child would have and he will most likely become the person you wis
People often start to get agitated and then it escalates into a tantrum. Parents and caregivers often have to deescalate the situation or calm it down after it occurs. The following is a list of possible steps to take beginning with deescalation and then to calming a situation. Each person is different so an observation and analysis of the tantrum behavior will help and is essential to identify which methods to use.
1. If the caregiver or parent observes any facial expressions, movements or behavior that show agitation it is best to intervene at this point. The intervention can include relaxation techniques, redirection or a cue word to calm the person down.
2. Once the behavior starts to begin or even when the precursor facial expressions begin the parent/caregiver can redirect the person to another activity or distract them by discussing another topic.
3. Another method of deescalation is to provide some relaxation methods for the person. Perhaps the person is tired and the caregiver can ask if they want to lay down or take a drink of water to relax.
4. Finally, if the behavior has started to occur then usually removing the person from the environment, moving the audience away or ignoring the person and engaging in another activity will deescalate the behavior.
5. Finally any major reinforcers such as affection or activities preferred should not occur if the behavior has escalated at all into verbal or physical aggression.
6. Also, in some cases training or physical management might be necessary if tissue dammage is imminent. 7. 7. However, on of the best way to avoid aggression or tantrusm from occuring is to fill the time during the day with activities and reinforcers for those activities.Finally one should seek advice of a trained Behavior Analyst for aggression or tantrums.
Children with special needs such ADHD or autism spectrum disorder often are not in touch with long term contingencies. Focusing the childs attention on long term contingencies can lead to big improvements in behavior and academic performance. Some tips in focusing on the future are discussed below. When meeting with teachers it is helpful to focus on the potential of your child such as intelligence or social skills. Secondly, the parents can focus on the future by discussing the future with the child. For example, the parent might discuss what car, job, spouse, kids, money or job title they might want when they grow up. This should be done on a regular basis hopefull daily or weekly. Thirdly, the parent might go onto the computer and look at people in jobs or careers the child might like, look at cars they might purchase or computer equipment. Focussing on long term goals will focus their attention on the future.
Parents and therapist often are not sure which behaviors to prioritize in training new skills or choosing replacement behaviors.The following identifies some important factors to consider in the selection. One factor to consider is to try to select a skill that will lead to the long term goals of the client. This often requires alot of imagination, observation and research to come up with some alternative goals with the client and his caregivers that will lead satisfying to a more satisfying lifestyle for the client. Once these goals are established all other training should be in agreement with these long term objectives. A second factor to consider is the inappropriate behaviors and the caregiver or trainer should attempt to design acquisition skills that will most likely reduce those behaviors. This may be done by teaching skills that are difficult to do at the same time as the inappropriate behavior or skills that result in the same types of reinforcement. Parents and trainers should always keep in mind that teaching skills that are not connected to the overall treatment plan goals to achieve will not lead the client as rapidly to acheiving the satisfying lifestyle the client and family want to achieve.